Arteether is anti-protozoal agent. This is the drug of anti-infective category. Arteether is a synthetic derivative of artemisinin. Artemisinin is derived from a Chinese plant Artemisia annua. It is a blood schizonticidal agent for P. falciparum malaria at its erythrocytic stage. It is also used in the treatment of chloroquine-resistant P.falciparum malaria and in cerebral malaria cases.
- Acute malaria
- Severe and complicated malaria including cerebral malaria.
- No resistance with Chloroquinine
- Malrid one ampoule, containing 150mg / arteether, daily for 3 consecutive days for adults
Arteether is a fast acting blood schizonticidal agent for P. falciparum malaria at its erythrocytic stage. It gets concentrated in parasitized erythrocytes. The main group responsible for arteether activity is endoperoxide bridge. Iron from digested haemoglobin of the parasite reduces the endoperoxide bridge. This causes the release of highly reactive free radical species of iron which causes the lysis of parasite cell. This causes the destruction of cell of the parasite which includes swelling, deformity of nuclear membrane, endoplasmic reticulum, food vacuoles and formation of autophagic vacuoles.
After IM administration of the drug it gets distributed throughout the body. It produces dose dependent response. Peak concentration achieved with IM administration, but relatively has shorter half life.
The bioavailability of drug is 9.6%. This drug acquires large volume of distribution i.e 20L, this suggests that it produces longer schizontocidal activity. It is beneficial for IM administration as rate of conversion of arteether isomers to dihydroartemisinin is lesser as compared to oral or IV administration. The plasma half-life is 2.3-3.2 hrs.
After reduction in the epoxide bridge the metabolites undergo glucuronidation and it is excreted in urine or feces. The elimination half life ranges from 2 to 5 hrs.
- No resistance developed with chloroquine
- Pregnancy and nursing mothers
- It is contraindicated in conditions like Malaria prophylaxis
- Consuming food with other drug can cause side effects: nausea, vomiting
- Black skin people faces generalized pruritis
- More use of the drug can cause minor visual blurring
- Long term daily dose cause retinol toxic effects