Ceftazidime is third generation, semi-synthetic, broad spectrum antibiotic for parenteral administration. It is the pentahydrate of pyridinium, 1-[[7-[[(2-amino-4-thiazolyl)[(1-carboxy-1-methylethoxy)imino]acetyl]amino]-2-carboxy-8-oxo-5-thia-1-azabicyclo[4.2.0]oct-2-en-3-yl]methyl]-, hydroxide, inner salt, [6R-[6α,7β(Z)]]. Effective against many of the gram positive and gram negative bacteria. Third generation of this class of drug have high activity against gram negative bacteria. Ceftazidime like drugs in its class are active against pseudomonas, less or not active against streptococcus aureus. The presence of C=N-OCH3 group in third generation of cephalosporin makes it different from other generation.
- Psedomonal lung infections
- Patients with prophylaxis surgical infections
- Biliary tract infections
- Infections in bone and joints
- Skin infections
1gm every 8-12hrs
It produces its action by binding to PBPs (penicillin binding proteins) which inhibits peptidoglycon synthesis by stopping the final step of peptidoglycon synthesis in bacterial cell wall. This in turn inhibits the biosynthesis and arresting cell wall synthesis. This causes the destruction of the cell wall of bacteria and causes cell death.
After administration of this drug the plasma concentration reaches in 1hr. the absorption of the drug is directly dependent on the dose of the drug. Maximum serum concentration is 3mcg/ml in 8hrs.
The distribution of the drug is throughout the body tissues and fluids even cerebrospinal fluids. The protein binding of the drug is about 10%. This drug even crosses the placenta and breast milk. The half life is about 1.9hrs. The mean renal clearance of ceftazidime was approximately 100 ml/min. The plasma clearance is about 115 ml/min.
The excretion of the drug is through urine by glomerular filtration. About 80-90% of the drug is excreted in unchanged form in 24 hrs. Small amount of drug is excreted in bile. In patients with renal impairment and neonates there is prolonged elimination half-life.
- Hypersensitivity to ceftazidime and to other cephalosorin
- Clostridium Difficile Bacteria Related Colitis
- Hepatic problems
- Renal impairment
- Decrease in the Blood-Clotting Protein Prothrombin
- Complicated urinary tract infection
- High concentration of Ceftazidime in the body causes decrease in urine output
- Carefully administered to the patients with renal insufficiency
- Repeated health analysis should be done
- Elevated serum levels can cause seizures, encephalopathy, coma, asterixis, neuromuscular excitability, and myoclonia